Some poems by Homer, the Greek poet, (around 850 BC), contain accounts of the genesis of the world and the succession of divine rule etc. According to the doctrine of 'divine right to rule', a monarch or a despot derives his indisputable right to rule directly from God.
According to some dead Persian poets, three essential elements are required to make a person a right king: bestowed divine glory, pure nobility and perfectionism plus acquired intellect.
To understand this phenomena, we need to briefly explore the implications of 'succession of divine right to rule' in the 1st millennium of Persian long history, beginning 558 BC, ending 334 BC, when Alexander of Macedonia toppled Persian Empire under King Darius III. After the disgraceful defeat, for several hundred years, some Persian books, related that Alexander was a half-brother to the fallen king! Therefore, it was simply a domestic dispute between two brothers. A king comes, a king goes. Today, this defense mechanism is called denial, minimisation (denial and rationalization), projection or cognitive dissonance.
After 1000 years, the same cognitive dissonance happened again when the first idolaters-turned Moslem warriors invaded the legendary Sassanid Empire of Persia, whose kings were said to have been selected by Ahura Mazda, God, in 635 AD.
The ideology of the succession of divine right to rule supported by influential Mullahs of the time prevented the Sassanid courtiers to choose a commoner as their king. In 5 critical years, from 628 to 632, the Persian Empire was in chaos, as they kept placing 11 baby-kings on the throne, hoping that the divinity will whisk away the infidel invaders. It did not work. Battlefields required battle-tested generals directed by an efficient Emperor and a working Command & Control Post in the battlefield.
Arabs, although outnumbered, defeated the well-equipped Army of the Persians who were demoralized by the rumor that the Arabs were soldiers of the divinity.
What exactly happened, in the aftermath, is interesting: The good Persians packed up their assets and began an exodus towards India and settled there, named Parsians, a down-to-earth god-fearing community who have contributed a lot to the economy of India. Those who remained behind were a bunch of deranged Mullahs and ignorant peasants who belatedly realized that they had been betrayed. They unsuccessfully initiated an on-going campaign to get rid of the invading idolaters-turned-Moslems.
As soon as the invading Arabs reached the Persian Empire capital in present Iraq, they looted the treasury, burned down the vast library, and, according to Islamic canons, took females as slave booties. Among the female slaves, there was a Princess, daughter to the fallen King. She was given to Ali, the future 4th Caliph of Islam who passed her to his younger son, Hussein. Thus Hussein, like Alexander, supposedly became the Persian's son-in-law, another Alexander, but they were wrong as the slave females had no conjugational rights! However, the mentality has continued for 1400 year to present time. (to be continued)